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Research Papers line

Cajigas I, Koenig A, Severini G, Smith M, Bonato P (2017). Robot-induced perturbations of human walking reveal a selective generation of motor adaptation. Science Robotics Vol. 2, Issue 6, eaam7749. doi.org/10.1126/scirobotics.aam7749. Abstract ~ Paper

Dhawale AK, Smith MA, Ölveczky BP (2017). The Role of Variability in Motor Learning. Annual Review of Neuroscience 40:479–98. doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-072116-031548. Abstract ~ Paper

Joiner WM, Sing GC, Smith MA (2017). Temporal specificity of the initial adaptive response in motor adaptation. PLoS Computational Biology 13(7): e1005438. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005438. Abstract ~ Paper

Brennan AE & Smith MA (2015). The Decay of Motor Memories Is Independent of Context Change Detection. PLoS Computational Biology 11(6):e1004278. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004278. Abstract ~ Paper ~ Press Release

Hadjiosif AM & Smith MA (2015). Flexible Control of Safety Margins for Action Based on Environmental Variability. Journal of Neuroscience 35(24), 92106-9121.     Abstract  ~  Paper (pdf)  ~  Supporting Information (pdf)  ~  SEAS News  ~  Get a Grip: Boston Globe story

Miyamoto YR, Wang SX, Brennan AE, & Smith MA (2014). Distinct forms of implicit learning that respond differentially to performance errors and sensory prediction errors. Translational and Computational Motor Control.     Paper (pdf) 

Hadjiosif AM, Criscimagna-Hemminger S, Gibo T, Okamura A, Shadmehr R, & Smith MA (2014). Cerebellar damage reduces the stability of motor memories. Translational and Computational Motor Control.     Paper (pdf) 

Gonzalez-Castro LN*, Hadjiosif AM*, Hemphill MA & Smith MA (2014). Environmental Consistency Determines the Rate of Motor Adaptation. Current Biology 24, 1050-1061.     Abstract  ~  Paper (pdf)  ~  Supporting Information (pdf)  ~  Commentary

Wu HG*, Miyamoto YR*, Gonzalez-Castro LN, Olveczky BP & Smith MA (2014). Temporal structure of motor variability is dynamically regulated and predicts motor learning ability. Nature Neuroscience, doi:10.1038/nn.3616.     Abstract  ~  Paper (pdf)  ~  Supporting Information (pdf)  ~  News & Views (pdf)  ~  Harvard Gazette Story   ~  Scientific American Article

Hadjiosif AM & Smith MA (2013). Savings is restricted to the temporally labile component of motor adaptation. Translational and Computational Motor Control.     Paper (pdf) 

Brennan AE & Smith MA (2013). Immediate decay onset in fixed and variable environments. Translational and Computational Motor Control.     Paper (pdf) 

Joiner WM, Brayanov JB & Smith MA (2013). The training schedule affects the stability, not the magnitude, of the interlimb transfer of learned dynamics. Journal of Neurophysiology, 110:984-998 .     Abstract  ~  Paper (pdf)

Wu HG & Smith MA (2013). The Generalization of Visuomotor Learning to Untrained Movements and Movement Sequences Based on Movement Vector and Goal Location Remapping. Journal of Neuroscience, 33:10772-10789.     Abstract  ~  Paper (pdf)

Sing GF, Orozco SP & Smith MA (2013). Limb motion dictates how motor learning arises from arbitrary environmental dynamics. Journal of Neurophysiology, 109:2466-2482.     Abstract  ~  Paper (pdf)

Hadjiosif AM & Smith MA (2012). Variability-Driven Predictive Control of Grip Forces. Translational and Computational Motor Control.     Paper (pdf) 

Brennan AE, Wu HG, & Smith MA (2012). The identification of a rapidly-decaying, high-precision proprioceptive sensory memory and its effects on motor adaptation. Translational and Computational Motor Control.     Paper (pdf) 

Asboth L, Brayanov JB, Press DZ, & Smith MA (2012). Spatiotemporal analysis of multi-stroke drawing movements in Parkinson’s disease reveals an impaired speed-accuracy tradeoff. Translational and Computational Motor Control.     Paper (pdf) 

Brayanov JB, Press DZ & Smith MA (2012). Motor memory is encoded as a gain-field combination of intrinsic and extrinsic action representations. Journal of Neuroscience, 32:14951-14965.     Abstract  ~  Paper (pdf)

Miyamoto YR, Wu HG, Olveczky BP & Smith MA (2011). Structure of motor variability predicts differences in motor learning rates. Translational and Computational Motor Control.     Paper (pdf) 

Brayanov JB, Petreska B & Smith MA (2011). Generalization patterns reveal that visuomotor adaptation is composed of two distinct components. Translational and Computational Motor Control.     Paper (pdf) 

Gonzalez Castro LN, Monsen CB & Smith MA (2011). The binding of learning to action in motor adaptation. Public Library of Science Computational Biology, 7: e1002052.     Abstract  ~  Paper (pdf)  ~  Supporting Information (pdf)  ~  SEAS Press Release

Joiner WM, Ajayi O, Sing GC & Smith MA (2011).  Linear hypergeneralization of learned dynamics across movement speeds reveals anisotropic, gain-encoding primitives for motor adaptation. Journal of Neurophysiology, 105:45-59.    Abstract  ~  Paper (pdf)  ~  Supporting Information (pdf)

Quaia C, Joiner WM, FitzGibbon EJ, Optican LM & Smith MA (2010).  Eye movement sequence generations in humans: motor or goal updating? Journal of Vision, 10:1-31.    Abstract  ~  Paper (pdf)

Wu HG, Sing GC, Clark LW, Gonzalez-Castro LN, Gabriel G, & Smith MA (2010). The Relationship Between the Temporal Structure of Motor Output Variability and Motor Learning Ability. Translational and Computational Motor Control.     Paper (pdf) 

Brayanov JB & Smith MA (2010). Combined intrinsic and extrinsic representation for visuomotor rotation learning. Translational and Computational Motor Control.     Paper (pdf) 

Sing GC & Smith MA (2010).  Reduction in learning rates associated with anterograde interference results from interactions between different timescales in motor adaptation. Public Library of Science Computational Biology, 6:e10000893.    Abstract  ~  Paper (pdf)  ~  Supporting Information (pdf)

Brayanov JB & Smith MA (2010).  Bayesian and "anti-Bayesian" biases in sensory integration for action and perception in the size-weight illusion. Journal of Neurophysiology, 103:1518-1531.   Abstract  ~  Paper (pdf)
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Shadmehr R, Smith MA & Krakauer JW (2010).  Error correction, sensory prediction, and adaptation in motor control. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 33:89-108.   Abstract  ~  Paper (pdf)

Sing GC, Joiner WM, Nanayakkara T, Brayanov JB & Smith MA (2009).   Primitives for motor adaptation reflect correlated neural tuning to position and velocity. Neuron, 64:575-89.   Abstract  ~  Paper (pdf)  ~  Supplementary Materials (pdf)  ~  SEAS Press Release  ~  NatureJournal Club (pdf)

Sing GC, Orozco SP, & Smith MA (2009). Adaptive responses in the human motor system interpret arbitrary force perturbations as state-dependent dynamics. Translational and Computational Motor Control.     Paper (pdf) 

Sing GC, Gary Sing, Najafi B, Adewuyi A & Smith MA (2009). A novel mechanism for the spacing effect: Competitive inhibition between adaptive processes can explain the increase in motor skill retention associated with prolonged inter-trial spacing. Translational and Computational Motor Control.     Paper (pdf) 

Wagner MJ & Smith MA (2008).  Shared internal models for feedforward and feedback control. Journal of Neuroscience, 28:10663-73.   Abstract  ~    Paper (pdf)  ~    Supplementary Materials (pdf)  ~    Nature Journal Club (pdf)

Joiner WM & Smith MA (2008).  Long-term retention explained by a model of short-term learning in the adaptive control of reaching. Journal of Neurophysiology, 100:2948-55.    Abstract  ~  Paper (pdf)   ~  Supplementary Materials (pdf)
F1000 Comment

Sing GC, Joiner WM, Nanayakkara T, Brayanov JB, & Smith MA (2007). The evolution of force profiles in a motor adaptation task reveals motor primitives with spindle-like properties that predict the difficulty of learning different types of force-field perturbations. Advances in Computational Motor Control.     Paper (pdf) 

Brayanov JB & Smith MA (2007). Anticipatory postural adjustments during the size-weight illusion reveal simultaneous Bayesian and 'anti'-Bayesian weight estimation. Advances in Computational Motor Control.     Paper (pdf) 

Smith MA, Ghazizadeh A & Shadmehr R (2006).  Interacting adaptive processes underlie short-term motor learning. Public Library of Science Biology, 4:e179.     Abstract  ~  Synopsis (pdf)  ~  Paper (pdf)  ~  Supplementary Materials (pdf)
F1000 Comment

Hwang EJ, Smith MA & Shadmehr R (2006).  Dissociable effects of the implicit and explicit memory systems on learning control of reaching. Experimental Brain Research, 173:425-37.     Abstract  ~  Paper (pdf)

Sing GC & Smith MA (2006). Patterns of anterograde interference in reaching arm movements explained by a multi-rate learning model. Advances in Computational Motor Control.     Paper (pdf) 

Ifediba M. & Smith MA (2006). Long-term retention in the adaptive control of reaching explained by a model of short-term learning. Advances in Computational Motor Control.     Paper (pdf) 

Chen H, Hua SE, Smith MA, Lenz FA & Shadmehr R (2006).  Effects of cerebellar thalamus disruption on adaptive control of reaching. Cerebral Cortex, 16:1462-73.    Abstract  ~  Paper (pdf)

Hwang EJ, Smith MA & Shadmehr R (2006).  Adaptation and generalization in acceleration dependent force fields. Experimental Brain Research, 169:496-506.    Abstract  ~  Paper (pdf)

Smith MA & Shadmehr R (2005).  Intact ability to learn internal models of arm dynamics in Huntington's disease but not cerebellar degeneration. Journal of Neurophysiology, 93:2809-21.   Abstract  ~  Paper (pdf)

McKinney AM, Casey SO, Teksam M, Lucato LT, Smith M, Truwit CL & Kieffer S. (2005).  Carotid bifurcation calcium and correlation with percent stenosis of the internal carotid artery on CT angiography. Neuroradiology, 47:1-9.   Abstract  ~  Paper (pdf)

Smith MA & Shadmehr R (2004). Modulation of the rate of error-dependent learning by the statistical properties of the task. Advances in Computational Motor Control.     Paper (pdf) 

Hwang EJ, Donchin O, Smith MA & Shadmehr R (2003).  A gain-field encoding of limb position and velocity in the internal model of arm dynamics. Public Library of Science Biology, 1:209-20.   Abstract  ~  Paper (pdf)  ~  Supplementary Material  ~   Synopsis  ~  Review & Primer (pdf)

Smith MA & Shadmehr R (2000).  Error correction and the basal ganglia. Trends in Cognitive Science, 4:367-369.    Paper (pdf)

Smith MA, Brandt J & Shadmehr R (2000).  Motor disorder in Huntington’s disease begins as a dysfunction in error feedback control. Nature, 403:544-49.   Abstract   ~  Paper (pdf)  ~  Nature News & Views (pdf)

Conference Abstracts line

Hadjiosif AM, Mallett KE, & Smith MA.   The effect of visual feedback latency on the retention and internal representation of visuomotor learning.   Society for Neuroscience (2014).

Miyamoto YR & Smith MA.   A modified random walk describes the low dimensional structure of motor variability in reaching trajectories.   Society for Neuroscience (2014).

Smith MA & Hadjiosif AM.   Time scales of motor memory in cerebellar ataxia.   Society for Neuroscience (2014).

Brennan AE & Smith MA.   Decay of motor memories is independent of context change detection.   Society for Neuroscience (2014).

Press D, Miyamoto YR, Breton JM, Brayanov JB, & Smith MA.   The effect of coordinate frame on motor learning in Alzheimer's disease.   Society for Neuroscience (2014).

Matzen J, Brayanov JB, Brennan AE, & Smith MA.   A rapidly decaying memory for weight estimation in anticipatory postural adjustments.   Society for the Neural Control of Movement (2014).

Hadjiosif AM, Mallett KE, & Smith MA.   Visual feedback latency reduces the retention of visuomotor learning and alters its internal representation.   Society for the Neural Control of Movement (2014).

Brennan AE & Smith MA.   Direct control of motor error to understand how errors and rewards drive trial-to-trial learning.   Society for the Neural Control of Movement (2014).

Breton JM, Press D, & Smith MA.   Identifying the constituents of motor sequence skill learning: Local spatial facilitation, local temporal inhibition and subsequence learning.   Society for Neuroscience (2013).

Press D, Brayanov JB, Tunovic S, & Smith MA.   Inhibition of posterior parietal cortex with 1hz rTMS alters the spatial frame of motor learning.   Society for Neuroscience (2013).

Miyamoto YR & Smith MA.   Analysis of individual differences in motor adaptation suggests one homogenous two-state population.   Society for Neuroscience (2013).

Hadjiosif AM & Smith MA.   Generalization of the temporally-labile and temporally-stable components of motor memory.   Society for Neuroscience (2013).

Brennan AE, Wu HG, & Smith MA.   The identification and characterization of a rapidly-decaying, high-precision proprioceptive sensory memory & its effects on motor planning.   Society for Neuroscience (2013).

Hadjiosif AM & Smith MA.   The motor system implements smart safety margins based on estimates of environmental variability for both grip force control and obstacle avoidance.   Society for Neuroscience (2013).

Miyamoto YR & Smith MA.   A modified random walk describes the low dimensional structure of motor variability in reaching trajectories.   Society for the Neural Control of Movement (2013).

Hadjiosif AM, Petreska B, & Smith MA.   Motor personalities and motor moods in the retention of visuomotor adaptation.   Society for the Neural Control of Movement (2013).

Brennan AE, Wu HG, & Smith MA.   The identification of a rapidly-decaying, high-precision proprioceptive sensory memory & its effects on motor adaptation.   Society for the Neural Control of Movement (2013).

Hadjiosif AM, Petreska B, & Smith MA.   Mechanisms underlying the temporal stability of visuomotor adaptation.   Society for Neuroscience (2012).

Brennan AE, Hadjiosif AM, Gonzalez-Castro LN, & Smith MA.   Mechanisms for structural learning.   Society for Neuroscience (2012).

Petreska B, Brayanov JB, & Smith MA.   The global and local components of visuomotor generalization evolve at different rates.   Society for Neuroscience (2012).

Miyamoto YR & Smith MA.   Understanding the structure of individual differences in motor adaptation.   Society for Neuroscience (2012).

Beuchat NJ, Cajigas I, Smith MA, & Bonato P.   Inferring motor adaptation dynamics from the Force-Field Adaptation Paradigm using the Expectation-Maximization algorithm.   Society for Neuroscience (2012).

Hadjiosif AM & Smith MA.   Mechanisms for variability estimation in the motor system.   Society for the Neural Control of Movement (2012).

Miyamoto YR & Smith MA.   Analysis in individual differences in learning curves reveals greater variability for short time-scale motor adaptation.   Society for the Neural Control of Movement (2012).

Hadjiosif AM & Smith MA.   Learning rate modulation vs. dimensionality reduction as a mechanism for structural learning.   Society for the Neural Control of Movement (2012).

Sabes P, van Beers R, Brainard M, & Smith MA.   Variability and learning: chicken or egg?   Society for the Neural Control of Movement (2012).

Sabes P, van Beers R, Brainard M, & Smith MA.   Rapid flexibility: Creating novel patterns for novel control.   Society for the Neural Control of Movement (2012).

Gonzalez-Castro LN, Wu HG, & Smith MA.   Local generalization in the adaptive control of reaching arm movements.   Society for Neuroscience (2011).

Brayanov JB, Petreska B, & Smith MA.   Visuomotor transformations elicit simultaneous learning in two distinct coordinate systems.   Society for Neuroscience (2011).

Hadjiosif AM, & Smith MA.   Variance and higher order statistics drive grip force adaptation.   Society for Neuroscience (2011).

Press D, Brayanov JB, & Smith MA.   Dysfunctional extrinsic spatial representations for motor adaptation in Alzheimer’s disease.   Society for Neuroscience (2011).

Wu HG, Brayanov JB, Gonzalez-Castro LN, & Smith MA.   Patterns of generalization and interference reveal differential plasticity in forward and inverse models.   Society for Neuroscience (2011).

Miyamoto YR, Olveczky BP, & Smith MA.   Investigating the role of motor output variability in human reward-based motor learning.   Society for Neuroscience (2011).

Brayanov JB, Petreska B, & Smith MA.   Generalization patterns reveal that visuomotor rotation adaptation is composed of two distinct components: Local shift learning and global rotation learning.   Society for the Neural Control of Movement (2011).

Taylor J, Ivry R, Smith MA, Brayanov JB, & Hieber L.   Strategic generalization during visuomotor adapation.   Society for the Neural Control of Movement (2011).

Cajigas I, Goldsmith MT, Smith MA, Brown EN, & Bonato P.   Assessment of lower extremity motor adaptation via an extension of the force field adaptation paradigm.   Society for Neuroscience (2010).

Hadjiosif AM, Brayanov JB, & Smith MA.   Grip force adaptation during a reaching task reflects uncertainty on environmental dynamics.   Society for Neuroscience (2010).

Gonzalez-Castro LN, Hung PW, & Smith MA.   Force-field interference prevents normal adaptation to conflicting force-fields and modulates the degree of learning generalization.   Society for Neuroscience (2010).

Sing GC, Wu HG, Gonzalez-Castro LN, Gabriel G, & Smith MA.   The relationship between the temporal structure of motor output variability and motor adaptation rates.   Society for Neuroscience (2010).

Wu HG & Smith MA.   Adaptation to visuomotor rotation remaps both positions and movement vectors.   Society for Neuroscience (2010).

Brayanov JB, Akinfenwa O, Dale L, Orozco SP, & Smith MA.   Quantifying the contexts for state dependence in motor adaptation.   Society for Neuroscience (2010).

Brayanov JB, Akinfenwa O, Dale L, Orozco SP, & Smith MA.   Generalization of motor adaptation: Examination of state and context dependence.   Society for the Neural Control of Movement (2010).

Hadjiosif AM, Brayanov JB, Orozco SP, & Smith MA.   Uncertainty drives grip force adaptation during interaction with a novel object.   Society for the Neural Control of Movement (2010).

Sing GC, Clark LW, & Smith MA.   Rapid time-dependent decay of motor memories is immune to attentional distraction.   Society for the Neural Control of Movement (2010).

Wu HG, Sing GC, Clark LW, Gonzalez-Castro LN, Gabriel G, & Smith MA.   The relationship between the temporal structure of motor output variability and motor adaptation rates.   Society for the Neural Control of Movement (2010).

Sing GC, Orozco SP, & Smith MA.   The human motor system interprets arbitrary force patterns as state-dependent dynamics.   Advances in Computational Motor Control (2009).

Sing GC, Najafi B, Adewuyi A, & Smith MA.   A mechanism for the spacing effect: Competitive inhibition between adaptive processes explains the increase in motor skill retention associated with prolonged inter-trial spacing.   Advances in Computational Motor Control (2009).

Joiner WM, Ajayi O, Sing GC, Orozco SP, & Smith MA.   Linear hypergeneralization across movement speeds reveals anisotropic, gain-encoding primitives for motor adaptation and linear extrapolation of learning rate.   Society for Neuroscience (2009).

Brayanov JB, Sing GC, Fiore GA, & Smith MA.   Breaking down motor adaptation: Direct measurements of adaptive subcomponents reveals the functional architecture for learning and forgetting.   Society for Neuroscience (2009).

Gonzalez-Castro LN, Hemphill M, & Smith MA.   Upregulation and downregulation of motor adaptation rates via modulation of environmental consistency.   Society for Neuroscience (2009).

Sing GC & Smith MA.   Interference between state-dependent dynamics has a complex structure that can be explained by the neural coding of limb motion. Society for Neuroscience (2009).

Gonzalez-Castro LN, Hemphill M, & Smith MA.   Learning to learn: Environmental consistency modulates motor adaptation rates.   Advances in Computational Motor Control (2008).

Gonzalez-Castro LN, Monsen CB, Brayanov JB, & Smith MA.   Generalization in the active decay of motor memories.   Society for Neuroscience (2008).

Wu HG & Smith MA.   Movement vectors and targets contribute equally to movement planning but unequally to visuomotor rotation learning.   Society for Neuroscience (2008).

Sing GC, Najafi B, & Smith MA.   Inter-trial spacing increases retention in motor adaptation by specifically raising the level of a slow learning process.   Society for Neuroscience (2008).

Smith MA, Gonzalez-Castro LN, Monsen CB, & Brayanov JB.   Adaptive changes in arm dynamics are experience-dependent rather than goal-dependent.   Society for Neuroscience (2008).

Brayanov JB, Orozco S, & Smith MA.   Mental arithmetic in the human motor system during anticipatory postural adjustments.   Society for Neuroscience (2008).

Najafi B, Armstrong DG, & Smith MA.   The role of feedforward prediction in postural control.   Society for Neuroscience (2008).

Brayanov JB, Orozco SP, & Smith MA.   Evidence for simple arithmetic and object memory in the motor system revealed by weight estimates for anticipatory postural adjustments.   Society for the Neural Control of Movement (2008).

Sing GC, Joiner WM, Nanayakkara T, Brayanov JB, & Smith MA.   Motor learning primitives exhibiting position and velocity co-dependence predict the ability to learn several classes of force-field perturbations for reaching arm movements. Society for the Neural Control of Movement (2008).

Wu HG & Smith MA.   Learning of visuomotor rotations depends on both direction and final position.   Society for the Neural Control of Movement (2008).

Gonzalez-Castro LN, Monsen C., Brayanov JB, & Smith MA.   Registration of adaptive changes in arm dynamics are experience-dependent rather than goal-dependent.   Society for the Neural Control of Movement (2008).

Brayanov JB & Smith MA.   Anticipatory postural adjustments during the size-weight illusion reveal simultaneous Bayesian and 'anti'-Bayesian weight estimation.   Advances in Computational Motor Control (2007).

Wagner MJ & Smith MA.   Task-specific feedback control in reaching movements: full expression of trained force field internal model dynamics in untrained perturbation responses.   Society for Neuroscience (2007).

Sing GC & Smith MA.   Explanation of savings in arm-reaching movements by a two-state learning model.   Society for Neuroscience (2007).

Brayanov JB, Orozco S & Smith MA.   Anticipatory Postural Adjustments during the Size-Weight Illusion reveal simultaneous Bayesian and anti-Bayesian weight estimation in the nervous system.   Society for Neuroscience (2007).

Joiner WM, Sing GC, Brayanov JB, Gonzalez-Castro LN, & Smith MA.   Difficulty in the adaptive control of reaching arm movements predicted by a simple network model with realistic sensory input.   Society for Neuroscience (2007).

Najafi B & Smith MA.   Mechanisms underlying the decay of newly learned motor skills.   Society for Neuroscience (2007).

Ifediba M & Smith MA.   Long-term retention in the adaptive control of reaching.   Advances in Computational Motor Control (2006).

Smith MA & Shadmehr R.   Motor adaptation is a rich, multi-dimensional process.  Society for the Neural Control of Movement (2005).

Smith MA & Shadmehr R.   A Multi-Rate Model of Memory Explains Savings and Interference in Both Saccade and Reaching Adaptation.  Society for the Neural Control of Movement (2005).

Smith MA & Shadmehr R.   Learning to Learn: Adapting the Rate of Motor Adaptation to Properties of the Input Disturbance.  Advances in Computational Motor Control (2004).

Smith MA & Shadmehr R.   State Space Modeling of Motor Learning Reveals that Adaption Rate Varies with the Statistical Properties of a Distubance Signal.  Computational Neuroscience Meeting (2004).

Smith MA & Shadmehr R.   Learning to Learn: Adapting the Rate of Motor Adaptation.  Society for the Neural Control of Movement (2004).

Smith MA & Shadmehr R.   Analysis of Error Correction Mechanisms in Huntington’s Disease and Cerebellar dysfunction.   Society for Neuroscience (2001).

Smith MA & Shadmehr R.   Error Correction in Huntington’s Disease.   Society for the Neural Control of Movement (2000).

Smith MA & Shadmehr R.   The Motor Disorder in Huntington’s Disease may begin as a Disorder in Error Feedback Control.   Society for Neuroscience (1999).

Smith MA & Shadmehr R.   Motor Learning Disorders in Gene Positive but Presymtomatic Huntington’s Disease.   Society for Neuroscience (1997).

Smith MA & Shadmehr R.   Movement Jerk is Increased in Huntington’s Disease Even Before Clinical Onset.   Society for Neural Control of Movement (1997).

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